The Role of Architectural Technology will change the future of Construction Industry

                                           [Author’s Name]

                                       [Institution’s Name]


Architectural technology is the field of construction industry dealing with the design of buildings. This is a new field that emerged recently due to introduction of new technology in designing and construction of buildings. World has witnessed much advancement in the architectural designs. During last few decades world has witnessed innovative designs of buildings and successful completion of projects like Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Current paper was aimed at exploring the role of architectural technology in the future of construction industry. The author has focused on the new technologies, green building, and explored its benefits as well as impact on the future construction industry. It is evident that architectural technology and the rising demand of building green have been triggering so many changes in the construction industry. Architectural technology will change the role of construction industry in future as it will reduce cost and time of construction. New buildings will be more environment friendly having more facilities with less external energy needs. The new technologies and innovative methods in construction industry will be useful for all the stakeholders including contractors, subcontractors, architects, labor force and customers. Using green technology makes buildings environment friendly and the buildings become self sufficient as regards energy needs. The trend of isolated buildings, installation of solar panels, and use of smart devices in construction helps to reduce future costs and the buildings fulfill electricity needs by acquiring energy through natural resources.

The Role of Architectural Technology will change the future of Construction Industry

Chapter-1 Introduction


         Architectural technology is the discipline that deals with the design of buildings. World has been witnessing radical changes since the day human beings have landed on it. The need and desire for safe shelter has been one of the basic dreams of human beings. With the passage of time and development in technology, the things have gone complex. World is moving towards Green technology solutions. Moreover, with the passage of time, there has been increasing demand of unique designs. For this purpose, the construction industry has gone through many changes over the passage of time. Recent technological advancements in architecture and growing green concerns have been putting the construction industry towards revolutionary changes.

         Increasingly construction firms have begun to use innovative land and construction techniques. Several techniques have changed including those which develop the land, the materials used when constructing the buildings and homes how the home is constructed and located. All these procedures not just reduce environmental impacts, but it also has the ability to be environmentally beneficial. For example, builders in the far north and south build more efficient homes due to the dramatic changes in climate. The use of energy efficient heating, ventilation, and air condition (HVAC) systems and products not only benefits the consumer, but reduces the amount of GHG emissions as well (DOEa, 2008). Increased innovation and the subsequent development of more efficient homes have helped control residential emissions despite the boost in population of United States. From 1990-2008, while the U.S. population grew by an average of 1.1% per year, the housing sector carbon dioxide emissions grew by an average of 1.3 percent for the same time period (Pew Center, 2009). The consumption choices of households play a major role in determining

Aims and Objectives

         Main aim of the study is to explore how the role of architectural technology will change the future of construction industry. Current chapter is a review of the literature related to the research topic. The author has discussed architectural technology and its role in construction industry. The topics such as latest designing soft wares, latest construction techniques, green technology, electronic devices, and energy efficient buildings have caused revolutionary changes in the construction industry have been included in the review of literature.

         There is a going trend of adopting green technology and construction techniques and materials that make the buildings more environments friendly. People will be looking in many features in the construction industries only after a few years.

         First of all they will be using materials that are green in all terms. The list made above tells that world is growing conscious about the way it has been utilizing and exploiting energy sources of nature. People and organizations are looking for such construction and design solutions that should reduce their energy consumption to the maximum extent.

         Secondly, customization of materials will be more attractive and in demand in future construction industry: When people have the materials with them, there is need to customize them with the growing complex and highly demanding design solutions. This is the most important part of the whole process. If there has been not much research and development in this regard, superb designs will not get materialized due to limited customization capabilities of green construction materials.

       Thirdly, customers must also be able to make, understand and use compatible construction software and techniques. They need to come up with construction solutions that are fully compatible with the deign needs. Much research and development is needed for keeping both the parties on same track.

         Another future trend is the concept of zero energy homes. The level of energy utilization in these homes is zero. These types of homes use natural sources of energy by converting it into different forms. This energy is used to perform activities of daily life. A ZEH (Zero Energy Home) is a combination of state-of-the-art, energy-efficient construction techniques in which renewable energy are utilized. Most commonly solar and wind power is used to create the energy as per building requirement.   (, 2012)

         Recently much advancement has been seen in the architectural designs. Current paper is aimed at exploring the role of architectural technology in the future of construction industry. Recently world has witnessed innovative designs or buildings and successful completion of projects like Burj Khalifa in Dubai. The author has discussed new technologies that have emerged in the designs and building materials. The increasing impact of architectural technology has been discussed using Dubai and UK construction industries as case studies.

Research Questions

Current research study addressed following research questions;

1. What are the developments in Architectural Technology and what is its impact on construction industry?

1. How the role of Architectural Technology will change the future of construction industry?

                               Chapter 2- Literature Review

        Architectural technology has been evolving since the day human beings started constructing homes on this globe. With the passage of time advancements in calculation methods and techniques for determining the durability of designs made by architects, world has been changing in appearance. There are more horizons for architectures for shaping new buildings than ever.

(, 2008) describes the necessary characteristics of the home design as:

        “Design and Orientation: Roof overhangs, window size and placement, and overall home shape have a major impact. Consider the direction of prevailing winds and how to manage solar gain. If you will be using solar collectors, ensure that a portion of the roof faces true south. The placement of porches, garages, trees, and nearby buildings also have an effect. Insulate and Seal the Building Envelope: Most of a home’s energy is spent heating and cooling the interior. Minimizing heating and cooling requirements is the most important step in building a ZEH.”

        These homes have high production cost at the moment but, awareness has been increasing and governments are introducing special subsidies and packages for construction of such homes.

        Software to Design Building Maps

Below is a brief description of some important software

1. 3D Architectural Software:

       These software emerged during the second half of the 20th century. This software originated in very primitive form and by the passage of time it has evolved so greatly that whole of the building is at first created in this software and later on handed over to the construction specialists for the purpose of creating a real life building out of it. Following are the major feature of this software:

1. SierraSoft Vista 2009:

        This is a texture making software. Some of the textures are built in and others we can make of our own choice. This is most simple and widely used software by the beginners.

2. Google Sketch Up:

        This is even simple and beginner software. It enables color filling and texture adding features to the sketches. It also ensures 3D motion of the objects and scenes for accurate designs. IT is compatible with most of other architectural software.

3. Chief Architect Premier:

        This is relatively advanced 3D architectural design software. It enables users to create real life models of the houses and other construction projects using images and other data from internet and many other resources.

4. Revit

        Revit is the hot favorite choice of architects and architectural companies. This is a highly complex and detail oriented software made for the purpose of creating quite realistic 3D houses and samples.

        In addition to these (Dan, 2010) has listed ArchiCad, Chief Architect, Punch Software, AutoCad Architecture, Vectorworks Architect as the top five Architecture software laden with following features:

5. Electronic Design

         Electronic design software allows architects to look for solution needed for the purpose of making superb designs of any shape. They just make or take or make shapes of some sort and command the software to come up with possible design elements and details needed for such a design. They can design roofs, walls, even tiles of a house using this software.

        This design is multilayered. There are many skins for the design. The innermost skin is the skeleton and as we come outward, the skins keep on adding to give a finished look.

                                                Durability Checks:

        This software is designed to tell and compare durability of designs hence made. Designers can compare and contrast different design technique for the purpose of reaching most efficient and workable solution. This relives the efforts of testing each solution in real laboratories.

                                                Prediction Features:

     Latest design software is also laden with all properties and features of different materials. They can predict how a fire will spread in a building or how short circuit will cause damage. Moreover, they can also tell heat resistance, resonance reactions, earthquake reactions, storm reactions and wind reactions of a particular design.

      All of these features have made Architecture, one of the most creative and daunting professions of the day. These changes in technology when coupled with the changes in the customer preference for construction material and technology are moving the construction industry towards all new form and functionality. Green technology is on high demand these days and much research has been done for incorporating it in regular building architecture and construction.

                           Chapter 3-Green Technology in Construction:

      There are many types of Green Technology that are purely aimed at reducing the need to use electricity and other sources for adjusting temperature of homes at different times of the year; resulting in emission of green house gases and adding to the environmental problems. Research has shown that effective insulation is the main focus of this preventive type of green technology. Various insulation methods are being applied to stop the exchange of heat between the inside and outside the home. Below is a discussion of some of these methods:

      Denim Insulation material is made from the recycled denim. It is mainly sandwiched in between the wooden walls and roofs of the house (Gabriel, 2011). Denim is a superb insulator and it keeps the houses cool in summer by blocking the entrance of heat into the houses and keeps them warm by preventing the loss of inside energy by dissipating outside in winters.

      Cellulose Insulation: This insulation is made of recycled paper. Again it is very effective in preventing the exchange of temperatures between the inner and outer atmosphere of the houses; hence reducing the need of additional energy resources for the purpose of temperature regulation. (Fisette, 2005) describes additional features as:

      It has been claimed by the Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association (CIMA) that insulating a 1500 ft house with cellulose recycles as much newspaper as an is used by an individual within 40 years. If this cellulose is used to insulate all new homes, these 3.2 million tons of newsprint will be utilized from waste stream of the nation annually. These are the features that make it a far better insulation material than fiberglass.

      Another insulation method is thermocol insulation. This insulation, made up of the sea foam is favorite material in the hot areas where there is summer season for most of the time of the year. It keeps the roofs cool by trapping the heat generated by sunlight in the space between the real roof and the thermo core roof. It helps a lot in keeping the room temperature down to three to four degrees than  and reduce pressure on the air conditioners.

Generative Green Technology is type of technology may be referred to as the technology that uses natural energy resources without the production of any harmful gases and facilitates temperature regulation in homes while producing electric energy for other uses. Following are the major forms of this technology:

Solar Energy: This is the most famous type of green technology for the purpose of fulfilling energy needs of all types of a home. Following are the major types:

Passive Solar Energy: Passive Solar Energy has been in use since the times immemorial. In the ancient times and even in today’s rural areas, houses were designed in a way to ensure three following processes:

· Entrance of Sunlight in the house through windows

· Entrance of air trough doors and ventilators

Utilization of sunlight and moonlight to perform all types of chores that do not involve usages of special energy based devices

(Holloway, 2011) explained the time old use of this technology as:

“At the beginning of the 21st Century it is ironic that the idea of solar energy technology seems so new and intimidating. It is fact man has used sun even when he had not become “civilized”. “With pundits arguing over the price of the last obtainable fossil fuel, as well as the end of the AGE OF COMBUSTION, it is time to remember our most important and economic energy resource–the sun.”

   All of these efforts would greatly reduce the need of other energy resources for the purpose of maintaining a home. Lawns and trees were must have parts of these houses, coupled with ventilators would create romantic and less killing atmosphere in summers.

   Active Solar Energy is used in the form of Solar Panels for the purpose of generating electricity for the need of a house. Solar panels are installed on the roofs and other places of the houses which are exposed to sunlight most of the time of the day. The cost of deploying solar panels for energy production is relatively higher but, when compared with the other resources in terms of all types of benefits, the cost does not matter at all.


       Other devices like Solar Heaters, Solar Stoves and Solar Geezers are also available in the market. These devices directly use sunlight and convert it to other forms of energy except electricity for performing everyday activities.

       In many parts of the world, Bio Fuel is being used for the purpose of generating electricity through biochemical reactions in huge reactors, full of debris and animal dung. This type of energy can be utilized either in place of regular gad for cooking purposes and can be used for running turbines for generating electricity. Such homes are energy efficient. (biofuelwatch, n.d.) technically explains the energy resource as:

       “Biofuel can be distinguished as a gaseous, liquid or solid fuel and is generally used for vehicles, homes and cooking. It powers vehicles and produces heat and electricity in homes. Modern technology has even designed a system where pollution can be converted into renewable bio-fuel. Household, forestry, industry and agricultural waste are used to produce bioenergy that can be stored for an indefinite time period. This is just one aspect of biofuel that differentiates it from other fossil fuels and crude oil.”

      Almost all of the wastage can be used for generating energy and there is no special need of waste management as well. The cost of deploying this type of energy plant is relatively lower than the solar panels. Moreover, there is no production of nay harmful substance that can contribute to global warming.

      Geothermal energy can be used for warming up the houses in winters and dissipating the excess heat in summers to the core of earth. This technology requires digging deep in the earth to reach the point where water inside the pipes can get heated up and when it’s pumped back, the heat hence generated can be used for carious purposes. (conserve-energy-future, n.d.)  discusses the reduction of pollution as:

      “This is one of the main advantages of using geothermal energy since it does not create any pollution and help in creating clean environment. Being the renewable source of energy, geothermal energy has helped in reducing global warming and pollution. Moreover, Geothermal systems does not create any pollution as it releases some gases from deep within the earth which are not very harmful to the environment.”

      However, this type of energy management is very tiresome and is not reliable as compared with other energy resources.

Adjusting Green Technology:

       This type of architectural technology has been in use since the primitive tomes for the purpose of creating such houses and such housing societies that have the capacity to store excess resources naturally and can nullify the harms of storms by storing and utilizing the water for better use.

       EPA of USA has been working on such technologies and design techniques that are helpful in reducing the flow of the flood and storm waters and making such buildings that are storm proof to a great extent only after application of some smart architectural and design techniques. (Malawsky, 2011) describes the problem and solution quite clearly:

        “Property and casualty claims data indicate that fallen trees and shrubs cost the insurance industry billions of dollars each year in removal and reconstruction costs.  These claims are rising due to a number of factors, including: the happening of stronger, more aggressive storms; enlargement of the green movement, which is causing an increase in the preservation of large trees during construction; and an increase in land development that encroaches upon natural areas containing mature trees.”

       Even EPA has been working n plans to come up with designs of new housing societies for natural storm adjustment.

                                  Smart Construction Materials:

       Many smart construction materials are also in sue for the purpose making houses that are more efficient in terms of energy storage and use and are least harmful for the environment. Most frequently used are the paints made by milk proteins and other natural minerals that are not only more durable than other alternatives but also, are more energy efficient and do not harm the environment after degrading. (, 2012) describes one of the four uses of milk paints as follows:

       “Milk-color is much longer than other natural alternatives. When painting, product testing with other leaders, will also be featured in the selection of clay coatings and environmentally friendly alternative. Although cheaper, does not offer the same tone paint impressive palette of colors, milk-based retailer, and will not last that long. If you are an executive with the intent of this commercial reorganization over, milk-based paint can and follow the new guidelines for business for many years after the first application.”

(Riggio, 2000) further highlighted the procedure of manufacturing and toughness claims as:

       “Before commercially prepared paint was available, paint was made at home, based on formulas handed down from generation to generation. Milk paint was made from curdled milk or cottage cheese, lime and earth pigment for color, according to Dwayne Siever, owner of Real Milk Paint ®, a milk paint manufacturer in Quakertown, Pa. While it doesn’t sound very tasty, milk paint can provide a desirable antique-looking finish to period reproductions.”

    So, mil is going to be one of another natural ingredient that would be used outside diet.

   Another option in this regard is the Hemcrete.


       In actual Hemcrete is a green alternative of concrete to build homes. (greenspec.buildinggreen, 2012) described the main constituent as:

       “The industrial hemp used in Hemcrete (the same species as marijuana, but with far less of the narcotic THC) is currently sourced from England, where it can be grown legally, but Tom Glab of American Lime Technology told me that they are working to find a source in Canada, where industrial hemp is also legal.”

       This is made after mixing soil our mud with different natural materials and then left for hardening for more than two years. (Daniel Flahiff, 2009) describes features and uses of Hemcrete as:

       “Good looking, environmentally friendly and 100% recyclable, Hemcrete® is as versatile as it is sustainable. It can be used in a mind-boggling array of applications from roof insulation to wall construction to flooring. Hemcrete® is waterproof, fireproof, insulates well, does not rot [when used above ground] and is completely recyclable. In fact, the manufacturers say that demolished Hemcrete® walls can actually be used as fertilizer!”

       This material is also very helpful and energy efficient and can help in building such homes that will use least sources of energy generated by human beings.

       Many smart devices, as discussed above have been introduced that can be installed in houses without introducing any major changes in design and development of houses. These devices use such material and processes that are environment friendly and do not contribute a larger share in Global Warming. (Castle, 2012) has regarded 2012 as the year of Smart Appliances and describes one of the device as follows:

“Samsung featured apps such as a Grocery Manager on the 8-inch touchscreens on its French door RF4289 and side-by-side RSG309 refrigerators, while a WF457 Front-Loading washer, due this spring, has a smart control system that lets you wirelessly connect to it to check status and start or pause wash cycles. Via a smart phone application, you can monitor cycle selections, remaining time and finishing alerts, as well as remotely start or pause the washer from anywhere in the house.”

In addition to that he said that now it will be wastage of time to use energy generated with old and traditional methods in smart maintaining devices:

“The real advantage is that now appliances are communicating. If we’re able to do that, then the ‘smart home’ is possible,” echoes Kent Dickson, chief technology officer of energy management smart grid company Tendril.

“OK, so you may not want to input your food inventory into a refrigerator’s LCD panel, or even check on the washer’s energy usage. Some of this stuff may be pie-in-the-sky”. Or as has been said Sterling, “You’re not going to be Facebook friends with your fridge.”

His superb and excellent explanation is giving a view of the future relationship of human beings with smart appliances.

                                        Chapter-4 Case Studies:

                                   UK Construction Industry

      The UK construction industry is the sixth largest industry in the UK in terms of turnover. In the fourth quarter of 2009, this industry provided employment to almost 2.2 million people in UK. Statistics of 2009 show that there were around 194,000 construction firms in Great Britain. This industry got total projects costing £18.7 billion from the private sector and £15.1 billion from the public sector (Office for National Statistics., 2010)

      It has gone through extraordinary period of self-examination during the last ten years. The leaders from major suppliers and clients as well as political leaders played their part for its advancement. In order to achieve a political and structural change, during the time period of 1993 to 2003, government and industry made a close collaboration so as to achieve a political and structural change in the industry and to re-organize it. (David M. Adamson, 2012)

       UK construction is also showing a trend to build energy efficient houses. Timber frame housing is being adopted by Britian. Despite shortened mortgage finances there is a steady demand for new build homes. Ewa Magnusson, marketing manager at BoKlok said that “The UK is an interesting market for us,” in addition to this she also said. “We’re considering it. If we re-enter, we would do it with Skanska.” (Julia Kolowe, 2012)

Figure 1-Builders make final adjustments to Space4 homes built by Persimmon in Coventry. Photograph: Bloomberg via Getty Images

Solar energy panels can also be seen on the roofs of commercial and residential buildings that not only fulfill energy needs of the buildings but also present an impressive view.  Buildings in UK have become power stations. (Cann Hall, 2012)

                                       The Dynamic Tower of Dubai

       During the last decade, UAE construction industry has emerged as largest construction industry in the world. In that way it is also a complex and fragmented industry because it consists of multidisciplinary participants. Because of the complex and diverse nature of this industry results in delay to complete construction projects. (Faridi, A. and El-Sayegh, S., 2006)

       Building skyscrapers was, perhaps the biggest achievement of architectural and construction technology in the 20th century. But, soon the natural disasters and other accidents in these buildings coupled with loads of energy consumption made them unfavorable. For the purpose of making these buildings once again an honor and must have for all of the countries, the Dynamic Tower of Dubai project came on board, changing the perception and concepts altogether. The timber frames are isolated. Thus these houses not only save time and effort but are also energy efficient.

       World’s fist rotating building came up with new concepts of utilizing mechanics. The building has full capacity to generate electricity for whole of the building and the nearby buildings as well, by turning turbines fixed in the inside of each floor roof.

       “The building generates electricity from wind turbines mounted horizontally between each floor, eighty story building will have up to seventy nine wind turbines, making it a true green power plant while traditional vertical wind turbines have some environmental negative impact, including obstruction of views and the need for roads to build and maintain them, the Dynamic Tower’s wind turbines are practically invisible and extremely quiet due to their special shape and the carbon fiber material they are made of. (, n.d.)”.

       Moreover, other features of the building make it a must visit for people related to architecture and construction. This is also the first building of the world that has been made of

the pre-fabricated parts prepared in a separate location and just assembled onsite. This feature makes it comparable with Pyramids of Egypt in all senses.


       Building skyscrapers was, perhaps the biggest achievement of architectural and construction technology in the 20th century. But, soon the natural disasters and other accidents in these buildings coupled with loads of energy consumption made them unfavorable. For the purpose of making these buildings once again an honor and must have for all of the countries, the Dynamic Tower of Dubai project came on board, changing the perception and concepts altogether. The timber frames are isolated. Thus these houses not only save time and effort but are also energy efficient.


      World’s fist rotating building came up with new concepts of utilizing mechanics. The building has full capacity to generate electricity for whole of the building and the nearby buildings as well, by turning turbines fixed in the inside of each floor roof.

      “The building generates electricity from wind turbines mounted horizontally between each floor, eighty story building will have up to seventy nine wind turbines, making it a true green power plant while traditional vertical wind turbines have some environmental negative impact, including obstruction of views and the need for roads to build and maintain them, the Dynamic Tower’s wind turbines are practically invisible and extremely quiet due to their special shape and the carbon fiber material they are made of. (, n.d.)”.

      Moreover, other features of the building make it a must visit for people related to architecture and construction. This is also the first building of the world that has been made of the pre-fabricated parts prepared in a separate location and just assembled onsite. This feature makes it comparable with Pyramids of Egypt in all senses.


Chapter 4-Impact of Architectural Technology in Construction Industry:

Architectural Technology and Impact on Contractor/Owner

    From a contractor’s perspective, market growth of green buildings is likely to be a critical factor in the strategic performance of a contractor’s organization. According to Sink (1985), there appears to be considerable agreement on the domains across which success is measured. In order to understand the potential connection between sustainable buildings and organizational success, it is important to consider what constitutes high performance at organizational levels. Decisions made inside a contractor’s organization about whether to offer sustainable design to clients plays an important role in the organization’s success in the context of the increasing popularity of sustainable buildings. From the contractor’s perspective, the concept of “success” for adopting and offering sustainable designs includes:

· Reduced construction project duration

· Customer satisfaction

· Market differentiation (Landman, 1999)

· Regulatory advantage by being early adopters of sustainable construction

· (Landman, 1999)

Building projects cannot be done along sustainable lines without the owner’s or developer’s full support for sustainable concepts. A 1996 survey that the Environmental Building News did of its subscribers turned up to be a proving result for the above statement; those respondents cited client resistance as one of the major impediments to sustainable practice.

                Environmental, Performance, and Efficiency Benefits

Proponents of sustainable design argue that green technologies and design strategies will reduce environmental risks and enhance interior environmental quality, thus being more conducive to human health and productivity than buildings that use standard practices (Browning and Romm, 1995). Common green-building benefits likely to influence the decisions of construction professional to adopt a sustainable design include

· Reduced use of resources, especially water and energy (Heerwagen, 2000)

· Restoration of habitat restoration and utilization of inhabitant plantings in landscape design (Heerwagen 2000)

· Integrating the natural environment with the construction environment (Heerwagen 2000)

· Decrease the environmental burden of the project (Public Technology, Inc., 1996)

· Lower site-clearing costs

       Discussions with managers and members of the design team for a new green building in Holland, Michigan, also suggest that sustainable technology transfer and learning may be a hidden benefit of sustainable design and construction, in particular when new techniques and technologies are used. Heerwagen, 2000).

      Green buildings’ high efficiency and performance can result in higher property values and potentially lower lenders’ credit risk. More efficient systems have mostly low operating costs which can lead to higher net income for a building. In addition to increasing a building’s net operating income or value, green building measures will help the building owners to charge higher rents or achieve higher rates of building occupancy if tenants view green properties as more desirable. Currently, voluntary rating programs are under development for commercial buildings in the United States. (Public Technology, Inc., 1996).

Increases the Compliance of the Project Design Standards with the Environmental Regulations of Building Control Authorities

      Although the provision of buildings and the built environment is essential to our quality of life and to local and national economies, there is a high price to be paid in terms of environmental damage and the use of large resource quantities. The construction industry should clearly address these issues as well as the established and emerging sustainable construction techniques used to minimize the environmental impact of the sector. Various government authorities worldwide have adopted different methods (legislation, control, design and requirement, and management) for the protection of the environment from the negative effects of construction and the built environment. These authorities have developed various environmental and green legislations for construction. Adopting a sustainable design increases the compliance of a project with such legislation and standards

                                 Enhanced Relationships with Stakeholders

      Studies provide evidence that sustainable design and operations associated with increased resource efficiency and pollution prevention can have far-reaching impact on an organization to enhance the relationship with the stakeholders (Heerwagen, 2000). Renovation and construction projects and maintenance programs are necessary to improve the nation’s building stock. “These efforts depend on reliable sources for quality building products. Limitations on the availability of some building-material resources are beginning to occur. For some products, prices are raising faster than inflation as the availability of raw materials starts to decline. Products selected for construction not only consume resources and energy, but also produce air and water pollution as well as solid waste during their manufacture. Once installed, they may require maintenance or periodic replacement. When a building is demolished, the products and materials usually are disposed in landfills. Therefore, building materials that minimize the use of natural resources and are durable or reusable contribute to sustainable building practices” (Public Technology, Inc., 1996). Thus, the sustainable building practices which are resource efficient and environment friendly improve the quality of life for the occupants, the employees, and the shareholders. Apart from the above benefits, sustainable construction also provides monitory benefits for the project.

                 Improved Ability to Market to Pro-Environmental Consumers

      In order to help all the stakeholders at local level the first step will be green-building programs. This will be helpful for businesses, general public, plicymakers, investors, homeowners, and building owners. (Public Technology, Inc., 1996). The environment friendly characteristics of the sustainable buildings make it easier for developers and owners to market their property.

                                   Enhanced Community Livability

      Keeping a building site in harmony with its surroundings is vital not only to our environment, but also to our sense of community. Promotion and implementation of green building practices within a community can generate new economic-development opportunities. These opportunities can take a variety of forms, including new business development to meet the demand for green products and services, resource efficiency improvement programs that enable existing businesses to lower operating costs, development of environmentally oriented business districts, and job training related to new green businesses and products (Public Technology, Inc., 1996).

                                                  Chapter 6-Conclusion:

      Changes in the architectural technology and the rising demand of building green have been triggering so many changes in the construction industry. In the recent years, there has been so much advancement in the design technology that whole of the building is made on computers using 3D software and all of the checks are performed at the same place. Moreover, so many green technologies has been introduce that it has become inevitable for people to go without it.  The Bird’s Nest building of China and the Dynamic Tower of Dubai are the best examples of green and highly advanced architectural buildings that gave very tough time to the construction managers.

      All of the construction materials and advancements in the architectural technology are moving the construction industry towards all new horizons. The role of Architectural technology will change the future of construction industry as trend is changing from traditional buildings to innovative, energy efficient and environment friendly buildings. These new designs and technologies of architecture will be beneficial for all the stakeholders including contractors, customers, employees and other workforce. The future construction industry will be constructing buildings at low costs with more facilities.

      New technologies like 3D designing, green buildings have already changed construction industry.  New software such as 3D architectural softwares has facilitated the designing of buildings. These designs can be changed and adjusted easily. Green technologies are making the commercial and residential buildings more comfortable, less expensive and energy efficient.

      The role of architectural technology and its impact on the construction industry can be seen from the construction industry of UK and Dubai. This researcher discussed in detail how the architectural technology has changed scene of cities and the way buildings are built.

      In the similar way, raising concerns about the turning green and increasing developments in the architectural technology can change the complete outlook and operational look of the construction industry. Only the impact of Green technology is evident from the words of (Boutwell, 2008)

      “General categories of green technologies that apply to the buildings and facility market have been documented in many periodicals; for the building & facility industry, the major technologies of concern are:

      Energy & Resource Efficiency (HVAC systems, day lighting, water management and re-use)

      Alternative Energy Development (self-contained solar, wind and other power sources)

      Utilization of advance material to isolate walls, windows and other structures of the building

      Managing information such as modeling of energy, sensors and life cycle assessment

      Issues related to environment and health for example occupant health & safety, waste management, management of carbon emissions


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