To: ENG 3302

From: Mike Duncan

Subject: Feasibility Report, Due 10/18/16

Date: 9/27/16

This assignment is a feasibility report that stems from the first two assignments in this module–the Methodology and the Activity Report. It is your first ‘big’ assignment in terms of length. There are many good ways to organize formal reports, but I would like you to follow one structure for this report in particular. Please include the following sections:

· Memo of Transmittal

· Title Page

· Table of Contents

· Abstract

· Executive Summary (or Summary)

· Introduction

· Methodology (which you’ve already done!)

· Results

· Discussion

· Recommendations

· Back Matter (Works Cited, Tables, etc)

I advise you to start all of these sections on separate pages, using page breaks, so you can see the logical movement between each section. Chapter 19 is your main resource for formatting. You’ll find that all the sections I’ve mentioned are discussed in detail, though they may have different names. You’ll have to adapt them to your topic, of course. The relatively formal recommendation report on p. 532 is a decent model. Follow the suggestions for the front matter very carefully–page numbers, etc. Remember that serif fonts are best for body text and sans serif fonts are best for headings and titles. Double-spaced bolded headings in 14 Arial and single-spaced 12 Times New Roman for the body are very useful.

Also, study the example that follows this memo closely. Its abstract is too long, but it is an example of a clear A paper.

Graphics are not required, but feel free to include some for clarification. A reasonable rule of thumb is one graphic for every 2.5 pages–just enough to break up the monotony of text.

Fair warning: I will look the most closely at the executive summary (p. 536). It is your entire report in a nutshell, on one page. If it is good, the rest of the report will shine.

Deliverables for 10/18/16: A feasibility report (with memo of transmittal)

Tips for the individual sections

Title Page

This should include your names, the date, and the title of the report, formatted as you wish.

Table of Contents

The TOC should list all sections after it. Do not list the TOC on the TOC!


The abstract is a one-paragraph summary of your entire report, written for an audience of people searching through similar reports using keywords. It should summarize each major section of the report with one sentence, and include your feasibility recommendation. You should also provide a list of at least four keywords.

Executive Summary

The executive summary is a one-page summary of the entire report, a bit like the abstract, but it has a different audience – a decision-maker who does not have the time to read the entire report. You are not restricted to following the report in order here, but be sure to include your feasibility recommendation.


The introduction is a 1-2 page summary of the report, but it is different from the abstract and ES. Here, you are writing for an audience that wants to read the entire report, so you can take your time summarizing each section. Include the feasibility recommendation.

Methodology (which you’ve already done!)

This section details the methods you followed when collecting data. Remember that it should be in past tense, as you’ve already done the things that you list, instead of present tense.


This is where you put all of your data that you have gathered. This includes interviews, surveys, books you’ve read, information from the web, etc. You should NOT analyze the data here; instead, list it by category. This section is as long as it needs to be.


This is where you analyze the data you gathered; in other words, this is where you decide what the data means. It should be roughly a page. Do not go as far as a recommendation though, yet.


This last section should be about a paragraph long and contain your feasibility recommendation. Whatever you decide, it should not come as a surprise. Everything in the report should point toward your conclusion.

Back Matter (Works Cited, Tables, etc)

All other documents that need to be included can go in Appendices – Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.

Rubric (from syllabus)

The A paper or project is stunning in nearly every way. It organizes and explains difficult material in a clear and consistent fashion, demonstrates a sure, confident command of English style and the content of the assignment, and is absent of all but the slightest grammatical problems and usage errors.

The B paper or project is a good job. It is organized well, displays good style, and is relatively easy to comprehend. It is not stunning like the A, but it is hard to find something drastically wrong with it. It may have a few grammatical or usage problems, but nothing serious. A B paper always has room for improvement; it may need slight reorganization, or the tone may be unpolished in some small but noticeable way.

The C paper or project is merely adequate. It is neither good nor bad. A C means the writer fulfilled the minimum requirements of the assignment. There tend to be two kinds of Cs. In the first kind, the writer does one aspect, such as organization, very well, but does a very poor job in another aspect, such as grammar. In the second kind, the writer does a decent but unspectacular job in all categories, leaving an impression of blandness. A C level of work may be just enough to keep your job.

The D paper or project is poor and unacceptable. It may display the potential to improve, but as received, it does not meet the minimum standards of the assignment. Typically, the instructions for the assignment are misunderstood or not followed well, and the assignment shows signs of haste. Serious grammatical or usage errors may also be present, making understanding sentences difficult, though not impossible.

The F paper or project has few, if any, redeeming characteristics. Typically, the assignment is incomplete, or the writer has not followed the assignment instructions. It may have major and crippling grammatical or usage problems that prevent understanding of entire sentences.

Installing an Indoor Navigation System at the University of Houston Downtown Campus:

A Feasibility Report

Prepared for: Professor Michael Duncan

University of Houston Downtown

Prepared by: NAME OMITTED

University of Houston Downtown

July 20, 2015


“Installing an Indoor Navigation System at the University of Houston Downtown Campus:

A Feasibility Report”

Prepared by: NAME OMITTED

This feasibility report is the third and final deliverable for learning how to write a feasibility report as part of our curriculum in ENG 3302: Business and Technical Writing.  The prior two deliverables included the methodology report, in which we shared our feasibility study topic with Professor Duncan, and the Activity report which kept him informed of the progress made on our research efforts.  My report analyzes the feasibility of implementing an indoor navigation system at the University of Houston Downtown (UHD) campus. The UHD building seems to have no planned layout in terms of grouping locations by function. For example, the theatre where students perform is on the same floor as administrative offices, but then the auditorium where initiations and graduations take place spans two floors in an adjacent but joined building. The classrooms are strung along long corridors with no signs designating whether the classroom numbers are increasing or decreasing and faculty offices are smattered somewhere in between on the same floors. As a new student, a visitor, or even a returning student looking for a new set of classrooms, trying to navigate the campus can be a frustrating and intimidating experience.  To research the feasibility of having an indoor navigation system for the UHD campus, I conducted both primary and secondary research. A questionnaire asking UHD students for their opinions on whether or not they thought an indoor navigation system was required at UHD was delivered on 7/14/2015 and the responses are surprisingly split by 50%. Half the students who responded think it would be a good idea and the other half don’t. The secondary research is very promising; there are companies that offer indoor navigation systems for large buildings and complexes.

I recommend that UHD consider implementing an indoor navigation system for the UHD campus. A navigation system would save students and visitors considerable amounts of time and provide security to newcomers who are usually stressed on their first day of college.

Keywords: navigation, university, location finder, time savings, stress reduction, campus.


Table of Contents

Executive Summary…………………………………………………………………………1Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………3Methodology…………………………………………………………………………………5Results……………………………………………………………………………………….6Primary Research……………………………………………………………………6Secondary Research…………………………………………………………………9Discussion……………………………………………………………………………………15Recommendation…………………………………………………………………………….17References……………………………………………………………………………………18Appendix A – Student Questionnaire……………………………………………………….19Appendix B – UHD 2013-2014 Operating Expenses……………………………………….20



Executive Summary

On July 13, 2015, Professor Duncan initiated a three-part assignment: a methodology, a progress report and a feasibility study. In the methodology we had to list a topic for a feasibility study and an outline on how we were going to conduct the study. Our scope for the topic was limited to identifying a perceived need at the UHD campus which could be based on our own personal experiences. My topic, which was approved by Professor Duncan, was to conduct a feasibility study on implementing an indoor navigation system for the UHD campus.

The UHD building seems to have no planned layout in terms of grouping locations by function. For example, the theatre where students perform plays is on the same floor as administrative offices, but the auditorium where initiations and graduations take place spans two floors in an adjacent but joined building. The classrooms are strung along long corridors with no signs designating whether the classroom numbers are increasing or decreasing and faculty offices are smattered somewhere in between on the same floors. An indoor navigation system would greatly help students, visitors and faculty get from one location to another on campus.

The goal of my research was to assess the attitudes of the students towards an internal navigation system, the technologies available in that space, and the cost feasibility of implementing such a system.

For my research, I conducted a survey asking for student opinions about indoor navigation systems. The survey was delivered to students of both classes that I am currently enrolled in (Summer 2015). I also conducted extensive secondary research on existing solutions for indoor navigation systems and finally I reviewed the UHD budget to get an idea of whether there were any funds allocated for additional services such as a navigation system. Results of the survey showed a slight tilt in favor of implementing an indoor navigation system at UHD.  Although 90% of the students agreed that they got lost in the campus, only 60% agreed to use a navigation system if one was available. A couple of students were of the opinion that it was not necessary, that students should just familiarize themselves with the campus before semesters begin.

The product research was extremely encouraging. Indoor navigation is already in use at hospitals, trade fairs and other major corporate buildings.  Companies have innovative solutions like landmark photo navigation and navigation based on magnetic fields. What I was unfortunately not able to gather were cost figures.  All the companies I contacted wanted exact square footage, number of floors, number of primary areas, elevator banks, etc. This information was not readily available to me.  I did however review UHD’s budget for 2013-2014 but the budget only displayed large categories of expenses under Finance and Admin. I believe that the best line item for the cost of an indoor navigation system would sit in Information Technology or in physical plant management.

Based on my research I recommend that UHD pursue the acquisition of an indoor navigation system.  More research is required regarding the initial cost of the service and ongoing maintenance fees, but I think it’s an important service that will increase student and visitor


satisfaction.  I also believe it gives the impression of UHD being on the leading edge of technology.



On July 13, 2015, Professor Duncan initiated the first assignment of a feasibility study; the methodology. The methodology lists a topic for the feasibility study and an outline on how we are going to go about conducting the study. Our scope for the topic was limited to identifying a perceived need for the UHD campus which could be based on our own personal experiences. My topic, which was approved by Professor Duncan, was to conduct a feasibility study on implementing an indoor navigation system for the UHD campus.

The UHD building seems to have no planned layout in terms of grouping locations by function. For example, the theatre where students perform plays is on the same floor as administrative offices, but the auditorium where initiations and graduations take place spans two floors in an adjacent but joined building. The classrooms are strung along long corridors with no signs designating whether the classroom numbers are increasing or decreasing and faculty offices are smattered somewhere in between on the same floors. My personal experience on day one was harrowing. I had to meet my University advisor in his office. I didn’t know where to begin. I took the elevator from the third floor, where I usually walk in from the street to the sixth floor because the room number was 6.XX. As I exited the elevator I saw a web of long corridors, no signs, no people, nothing! I tried to make sense of the numbering system but there was no consistency. I almost considered going back to the 3rd floor and asking for directions.  Luckily, someone walked by, the look on my face must have been hilarious because the person was smiling under his breath as he was directing me.  As I walked down the corridors I kept thinking I should have carried bread crumbs to find my way back to the elevator. After all there were no birds inside to eat them.  In my opinion, a new student, a visitor, or even a returning student looking for a new set of classrooms, trying to navigate the campus can be a frustrating and intimidating experience.

In order to determine feasibility for an indoor navigation system I conducted primary and secondary research. The primary research consisted of conducting an online survey; I needed to get opinions from other students to see if they felt as I do. I could be the only one with bad navigation skills or no spatial skills. I asked questions like, do you get lost in the campus, do you think we need an indoor navigation system at the UHD campus and if we had one would you use it?

The results surprised me. The students are split exactly down the middle on questions 1-3.  For the rest of the questions all the respondents agreed there would be no drawback to having a navigation system on campus and suggested having increased signage and maps as an alternate to a navigation system.

For my secondary research, the first thing I had to do was to learn more about GPS systems.

For GPS to work, the positioning device (your phone) needs access to the sky so it can send signals to satellites orbiting the earth. Since buildings are closed structures, the first hurdle was that GPS systems would not work inside buildings.


However, more research showed that companies have devised other means of determining positioning designed specifically for indoor areas. One company has designed a static indoor positioning system and other research is being conducted on creating dynamic positioning systems that do not require intervention with a satellite.  I was quite encouraged with these findings and surprised at how much technological research is going on with regards to this topic.

Based on my findings, I recommend that UHD seriously consider implementing a navigation system at its campus.  I believe fewer students would be late for class, but more importantly students would feel more in control at the onset of each semester and consequently experience less stress when they are required to move about the building.

In the following sections of the report, I provide more details of my research methodology, research results, the conclusions I came to, and my recommendation for UHD.




The question I had asked was “Is it feasible to develop a GPS system that will help students, faculty and visitors navigate the UHD campus to get to their desired destinations?”

To research the feasibility of my proposal, I originally gathered data on the following topics:

1) Student feedback on whether we need a GPS system for the campus.

2) If there were any drawbacks to having a GPS system on a campus?

3) Would increasing signage in the buildings take care of the problem?

4) Have companies already built GPS systems for buildings? If yes, what do they cost?

5) Are there examples of buildings that are using the GPS service?

6) Does UHD have discretionary or allocated funds that can be used for this project?

As a result of my secondary research I realized that I needed to add to my research list:

7) A basic understanding of how GPS works?

8) What does indoor navigation entail and are there different types of solutions?


1) I distributed a survey to my fellow classmates to address items 1, 2, and 3. (See Appendix A on Pg. XX)

The survey results by a very small margin are in favor of having an indoor GPS system. I was surprised that there are some students who feel we should not have one.

2) I have conducted secondary research which will address items 4, 5, 6.

3) I gathered and analyzed the data for report preparation.

I learned there are several different types of solutions for indoor navigation systems.  The basic premise is that GPS signals which use satellites to pinpoint location don’t work in a closed building where your device (phone or receiver) has no access to the sky. Therefore companies have to design different ways of pinpointing where a person is in a building and where they want to go.

4) I have prepared this recommendation report.

This report outlines the data I have gathered on implementing an indoor navigation system at UHD. The data has been interesting but also discouraging to some extent. It has been near impossible to get anyone to mention any costs without giving them a commitment.  That will make my recommendation contingent on more cost data being acquired.



In this section I am presenting the results of my research. My research is divided into primary and secondary research.

Primary Research


I created and disseminated a survey to my class to gauge their thoughts on the feasibility of implementing a navigation system at UHD.  The results are as follows:

Figure 1.1

The data are clear in Question 1. Almost everyone surveyed had some problems finding their respective destinations at the UHD campus.


Figure 1.2

Forty percent of the respondents in Question 2 said they would never use a GPS for indoor navigation whereas sixty percent agreed they would.

Figure 1.3

Question 3 also leaned in favor of an indoor navigation system. Sixty percent of the respondents saw the need for an indoor navigation system whereas the other forty percent didn’t.


4) Do you see any drawbacks/problems with having a GPS app for the UHD campus?No, if we can use it on a daily basis for personal reasons i think it would greatly benefit the studentsThe wifi does not always work on campusThe app may not function properly. I know I have lost service while in a building.Would security be a problem, anyone could have access to the app.

Figure 1.4

Question 4 was a qualitative one requesting opinions about having indoor navigation systems. Half the respondents had no comments, the other half are split between Wi-Fi concerns and security.

5) Do you have any ideas for alternate solutions to the problem of students not being able to find their destinations on Campus?A mapStudents should visit the campus prior of beginning the semester to get familiarized.Ask someoneMore signsLook for an already existing app that can be used.

Figure 1.5

Question 5 got some of the responses that I had anticipated in terms of using a map or asking people.

Figure 1.6


A significant number of students felt signs would not take care of the problem of getting lost on campus.

The last question, question 7: Do you have any other thoughts or suggestions about the idea of creating a GPS app that students can use to navigate the UHD campus, received one positive response, “sounds like a good idea!”


I spoke to my technical development manager at work to see if he had any insights or new information on services for indoor navigation.  Unfortunately he did not. Uncannily however, he remembered doing a feasibility study to implement a navigation system in a grocery store to help people find products.  His approach was quite unique. He suggested creating a database of product SKUs that a customer can scan with a cellphone. The system knows where that product is located in the store and based on that knows approximately where the customer is standing and therefore can guide the customer to his destination from that starting marker.  A small obstacle would be if the customer scanned a code on a product that was left in an incorrect area of the store. Then the system would incorrectly route the customer. The end result was he recommended that the store not implement a navigation system since the technology hadn’t advanced enough to support it.

Secondary Research

As mentioned in my methodology, as I searched for indoor GPS systems I realized that I needed to have an understanding of what a GPS system is, how it works and what does it mean to have an indoor GPS system.  

According to NASA, what we colloquially call GPS is actually a three part system of satellites, receivers, and ground stations. There are over 30 satellites that circle the earth at about 12,000 miles making 2 full rotations every day. A GPS receiver is usually your phone, a navigation system installed in a car, or a specialty navigation device created for a specific purpose. The ground station is a large satellite dish on the ground that uses radar to keep tabs on the satellites and ensure they are in the positions they are supposed to be at any point in the day.

Brain & Harris, in their article How GPS Receivers Work, explain the trilateration process GPS uses to pinpoint a location on earth.  The term sounds pretty ominous but can be explained simply as, the GPS receiver (phone) needs to receive a signal from at least four satellites. When it does, it calculates the distance of the satellites from itself, giving it the data it needs to calculate the coordinates that pinpoint where it (the GPS receiver) is on this earth. Based on its own location it can then determine how far it is from another point.

Because a GPS receiver has to have access to the sky to send signals, it doesn’t work indoors. You might have noticed that your GPS signal drops when you are in a large multi storied closed parking lot. Based on this knowledge I realized that what I needed to search for were indoor


navigation systems and not indoor GPS systems. Once I made that change I found several companies who have devised solutions for indoor navigation that could potentially work at UHD.

According to Wikipedia, indoor navigation systems use different technologies, including distance measurement to nearby anchor nodes (nodes with known positions such as Wi-Fi access points), magnetic positioning (beacons), dead reckoning (deduced estimations). They either actively locate mobile devices and tags or provide ambient location or environmental context for devices to get sensed. The localized nature of an indoor navigation (positioning) system has resulted in design fragmentation, with systems making use of various optical, radio, or even acoustic technologies.  This observation was validated when I started looking at the different solutions available on the market.

I found this image (Figure 1.7) that helped me visualize how the indoor positioning/navigation would work. This image was originally sourced from Wikipedia but does not currently appear under this topic.

Figure 1.7

GoZio Health

GoZio has a suite of applications that are designed to provide comprehensive support to patients at any hospital. Their complete system consists of patient appointments and reminders, greetings from their doctors before their appointment, any pre-preparation reminders if necessary, like remember to fast for 4 hours before your blood test and turn by turn navigation inside the building to get the patients where they need to be.  The navigation system does not require a network connection and is run by an application called GoMap as shown in Figure 1.8.


Figure 1.8


The Geometri Navigator is similar to GoZio except that it is not part of a hospital specific system. It is a software framework that supports indoor maps, search and routing functionality, geo-fencing, iBeacon and BLE. Geometri can take the indoor maps and convert them into navigable frameworks to get people from one point to another.  To accomplish this without GPS or wi-fi, Geometric uses sensors at key locations that send signals to the GPS application allowing the system to pinpoint its location. This application has been created to optimize customer traffic in malls and in stores within malls.


Footmarks does not provide any navigational capabilities but they sell the iBeacons that companies like Geometri and GoZio use to enable their indoor navigation systems. Figure 1.9 provides an example of what beacons look like.

Figure 1.9



I noticed that a couple of these companies use the term “wayfinding” on their sites. I wasn’t familiar with the term but I looked it up and it’s a valid term coined in 1960 that means signs, maps, and other graphic or audible methods used to convey location and directions to travelers (

Eyedog provides a software application for indoor navigation for any physical location whether it’s a hospital, a mall, a University or an apartment complex.  They offer three solutions for indoor navigation.

Photo Landmark Navigation—the navigation is based on pictures of key points within the building that are loaded into the software. Directions are then hard coded to the series of pictures to get people from one place to another.  This solution is based on the way we naturally find our way when we are outdoors. We typically look for a landmark that we can remember, it gives us an anchor that we then direct ourselves from.

Figure 1.10 shows examples of photo landmark navigation.

Figure 1.10

Photo Landmark Navigation with Geofencing—Geofencing is the same as having a virtual barrier in place. It’s as if you had cordoned off an area in the building. This feature helps to keep secure areas free of traffic as well as to notify a user when they are lost or have ended up in the wrong place.  For this service however beacons need to be installed in all key locations around the whole building and a live internet connection is required at all times.

A screenshot of what a user’s phone might tell them can be seen in Figure 1.11.


Figure 1.11

Blue-Dot Navigation—this product caters to single floor layouts that are not permanent. Tradeshows for instance can be a complex set of turns and twists that need mapping help but the setup is not permanent enough to invest in landmark photo navigation. Blue dot navigation can be setup in a matter of hours using standard floor plans and providing users markers on where they can find what they are looking for.

Blue-Dot navigation can be combined with beacons to create a more elaborate mapping system because the system would communicate with the beacons to inform the users where they specifically are in regards to the floor map. However Eyedog does not sell nor install the beacons. Figure 1.12 shows what blue-dot navigation would look like on a user’s phone.

Figure 1.12



Nancy Owano, in an article titled “Finland team uses Earth’s magnetic field for phone indoor positioning system,” found on details the development of a new medium to provide indoor navigation.  IndoorAtlas is a venture company that is developing an indoor navigation system based on the earth’s magnetic field.  The premise is that animals navigate themselves around their surroundings based on magnetic fields they sense. In the same way, concrete buildings each have their own magnetic field and each structure within it also has its own unique magnetic field.  So instead of using wi-fi, these entrepreneurs are investigating and developing the use of these magnetic fields to navigate individuals in and around campuses or closed structures. The article was written in 2012. I looked for them online and found they are now running a beta version for application developers only.  This is the only company that had any costs listed on their website.  Currently they charge $99/month per venue for an app developer to get access to their service.

UHD Budget

Although I was not able to get any of the above companies to give me cost estimates, I reviewed the UHD budget to get an idea where a navigation system would fit.  I have a snapshot of a couple of the pages in Appendix B on Page XX.  The $115,833,219 budget shows 14 million allocated to Information Technology and 6.3 million to physical plant. I would assume a navigation system would fit in either of those categories.



Primary Research

The percentage of responses as well as opinions of the students surprised me.  I administered the survey not just our class but also my second summer class, totaling over 50 students. Only 9 filled out the survey.  I don’t know whether that in itself is a data point signifying that a navigation system is not top of mind on any student’s mind or if summer is just too hectic to fill out surveys for people.

Overall the data were interesting. 8 of the 9 students agreed they had trouble finding their way around campus and yet 40% said they did not think it was necessary to have an indoor navigation system and if there was one, they would not use it.  The same students also however agreed that putting up additional signs across campus was not necessarily the answer to fix the navigation issue.

The general sense I gathered from the students is that people should just familiarize themselves with the building before class, and ask people if they get lost. In their opinion it wouldn’t warrant an extra expense to the University to get an indoor navigation system.

The survey questions are located in Apendix A, page XX.  Upon reviewing my questions now, I believe I should have done a little research before creating the survey. That way I could explain in the survey what I know now about the differences between a GPS system and an indoor navigation system to provide better context for their answers. Especially the ones that said Wi-Fi is not constant would not have had a barrier if they knew that indoor navigation systems don’t always need Wi-Fi.

Secondary Research

My secondary research endeavor turned out to be an extremely interesting one. I had no idea that many advances had been made in the field of indoor navigation.  The landmark based navigation system at first seemed archaic to me but when I looked at the pictures I thought this is probably a good low cost solution for indoor navigation because all the cost is associated with the initial setup such as taking pictures, loading, developing the navigation, etc.  There is probably a small data maintenance fee on an annual basis and then consulting hours when and if something in the building changes significantly like adding a wing or a theatre.

Of course personally I would like the most sophisticated systems that use beacons and geo-fencing so the navigation works almost exactly like the regular GPS, but I am sure that comes at a cost and may not be feasible if organizations’ budgets are being ct.

Where the UHD budget is concerned, I want to say that accountants like to keep these as ambiguous and vague as possible so money can be easily moved from one category to another.  I am not implying any wrongdoing at all, just observing that blanket categories like Admin and


Finance which consists of admin & finance, business affairs, budget procurement, information technology, physical plant, risk management & compliance, university business services, emergency management and utility, make it difficult to pinpoint where one could allocate costs for something like an indoor navigation system.

There were two overall takeaways for me from my research. One is that navigation systems can enhance a user, student, patient or customer’s experience with the institution they are dealing with.  In a hospital, a person coming in to hear a threatening diagnosis is already stressed and getting lost in the building adds to the stress, which can be alleviated with a navigation system.  Similarly in a University, based on my own experience, I was coming in on my lunch hour, I work in Katy and had to take a 2 ½ hour lunch break. Time was of essence to me, I was stressed about my schedule, how things would work out, whether I would get the classes that I wanted, etc. The last thing I needed was to get lost which happened to me, so by the time I left I was a frazzled mess.

My second takeaway is regarding the advances in technology. I am in complete awe of the number of different solutions that companies have thought off. IndoorAtlas, a brand new venture company is my favorite. They believe if animals can navigate using the earth’s magnetic field then so can we.  Such out of box thinking surely deserves our support because these companies are the ones that bring us radical ideas that make our lives better.



I recommend that UHD pursue the acquisition of an indoor navigation system but with the contingency that it is cost effective for the school.  The educational arm of the Information Technology division can give this topic as a project to their students and have them conduct a cost – benefit analysis of implementing an indoor navigation system.  They would also need to put out a formal request for proposal to get costs associated with this endeavor. A third option could even be a competition to see if students themselves can come up with unique ideas on creating an indoor navigation system for UHD.

I am of the strong opinion that if universities are going to tout themselves as think tanks, as places where students innovate and grow, then they need to support new solutions in many different areas, indoor navigation systems being one of them.



(n.d.). Geometri Navigator. Retrieved from

(n.d.). Gozio Connect. Retrieved from

(n.d.). How Does GPS Work? Retrieved from

(n.d.). Indoor Atlas Beta. Retrieved from

(n.d.). Solutions – Secure Enterprise Beacon Platform. Retrieved from

(n.d.). Wayfinding Usability. Retrieved from

(2015, May 29). Indoor Positioning System. Retrieved from

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from

Brain, M., Harris, T. (2006, September 25). How GPS Receivers Work. How Stuff Works, Retrieved from

Flores, W. (2010, September 10). University of Houston Downtown – Budget for Fiscal Year 2013-2014. Retrieved from

Owano, N. (2012, July 10). Finland team uses Earth’s magnetic field for phone indoor positioning system. Retrieved from

Schneider, D. (2013, November 20). New Indoor Navigation Technologies Work Where GPS Cant. IEEE Spectrum, Retrieved from


Appendix A

This is the questionnaire I distributed to students at UHD to determine their opinions on an indoor navigation system for the UHD campus.

1) How often do you struggle to find your class, faculty office or any location on the UHD Campus?

ð Almost Always

ð Sometimes

ð Never

2) If you had access to a GPS app for the campus would you use it?

ð All the time

ð Sometimes

ð Never

3) Do you think we need a GPS app for the UHD campus?

ð Yes

ð No

4) Do you think putting up more direction signs would take care of the problem?

ð Yes

ð No

5) Do you see any drawbacks/problems with having a GPS app for the UHD campus?

6) Do you have any ideas for alternate solutions to the problem of students not being able to find their destinations on Campus?

7) Do you have any other thoughts or suggestions about the idea of creating a GPS app that students can use to navigate the UHD campus?


Appendix B

University of Houston 2013-2014 Estimated Operating Budget Expenditures